Al - Biruni

Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al - Biruni

Born: 15 Sept 973 in Kath, Khwarazm (now Khorezm province, Uzbekistan.)

Al - Biruni is one of the major figures of Islamic mathematics. He contributed to astronomy, mathematics, physics, medicine and history.

Abu Rayhan al - Biruni was born in Khwarazm, a region adjoining the Aral Sea now known as Karakalpakstan. The two major cities in this region were Kath and Jurjaniyya. Al - Biruni was born near Kath and the town were he was born is today called Biruni after the great scholar. He lived both in Kath and in Jurjaniyya as he grew up and we know that he began studies at a very early age under the famous astronomer and mathematician Abu Nasr Mansur. The total number of works produced by al - Biruni during his lifetime is impressive. It is estimated, that he wrote around 146 works with a total of about 13,000 folios (a folio contains about the same amount as a printed page from a modern book). The range of al - Biruni’s works covers essentially the whole of science at his time. We know certain dates in al - Biruni's life with certainty for he describes astronomical events in his works which allow accurate dates and places to be determined. By the age of seventeen al - Biruni was engaged in serious scientific work for it was in 990 that he computed the latitude of Kath by observing the maximum altitude of the sun. His description of an eclipse of the moon on 24 May 997 which he observed at Kath means that he had returned to his nativecountry by this time. The eclipse was an event that was also visible in Baghdadand al - Biruni had arranged with Abu'l - Wafa to observe it there. Comparing their timings enabled them to calculate the difference in longitude between the cities. We know that al - Biruni moved around frequently during this period for by 1000 he was at Gurgan being supported by Qabus, the ruler of the Ziyarid state. He dedicated his work Chronology to Qabus around 1000 and he was still in Gurgan on 19 February 1003 and 14 August 1003 when he observed eclipses of the moon there. We should record that in the Chronology al - Biruni refers to seven earlier works which he had written: one on the decimal system, one on the astrolabe, one on astronomical observations, three on astrology, and two on history. His most famous work India was written as a direct result of the studies he made while in that country.

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Al - Khwarizmi

Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa Al - Khwarizmi

Born: about 780 in Khwarazm (now Kharazm province in Uzbekistan.)

Al'Khwarizmi was an Islamic mathematician who wrote on Hindu - Arabic numerals andwas among the first to use zero as a place holder in positional base notation. The word algorithm derives from his name. His algebra treatise Hisab al - jabr w'al -muqabala gives us the wordalgebra and can be considered as the first book to be written on algebra.

We know few details of Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa al - Khwarizmi's life. One unfortunate effect of this lack of knowledge seems to be the temptation to make guesses based on very little evidence. But the name al - Khwarizmi may indicate that he came from Khwarizm south of the Aral Sea in Central Asia. The algebra treatise Hisab al - jabr w'al - muqabala was the most famous and important of all of al - Khwarizmi's works. It is the title of this text that gives us the word "algebra" and it is the first book to be written on algebra. The book was the written in Baghdad, where al - Khwarizmi worked under the patronage of Caliph Al - Mamun and he dedicated two of his texts to the Caliph. Al - Mamun was a great patron of learning and founded an academy called the House of Wisdom where Greek philosophical and scientific works were translated. He also built up a library of manuscripts, the first major library to be set up since that at Alexandria, collecting important works from Byzantium. In addition to the House of Wisdom, al - Mamun set up observatories in which Muslim astronomers could build on the knowledge acquired by earlier peoples. Al - Khwarizmi and his colleagues the Banu Musa were scholars at the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. Their tasks there involved the translation of Greekscientific manuscripts and they also studied, and wrote on, algebra, geometryand astronomy. These were his treatise on algebra and his treatise on astronomy.

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Al-Ferghani

Al-Ferghani

Abul Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ferghani Kazir (798-861) – was an outstanding Central Asian astronomer, mathematician and geographer. Biographical information about the famous scientist almost was not saved, but, judging by his nickname, he was a native of Ferghana.

It is well known that during his average age al-Ferghani lived in Baghdad, working in the famous "House of Wisdom", which was based by ruler of al-Ma'mun. It was a sort of Academy of Sciences, where at that time from all parts of Central Asia prominent scholars and scientists were invited. For example, except of al-Ferghani a galaxy of great names who worked at the Academy at the time can continue: astronomer and mathematician al-Khorezmi, a physicist, called Yusuf ibn Iskhaq (al-Kindi), medics Abu-Resi as well as Hunayin ibn Iskhaq.

Al-Ma’mun Academy was a refuge of all branches of science, but astronomy was considered to be of particular importance here, which was a popular in the Middle Ages. Two observatories In Bagdabe were built, equipped with the best, at the time, tools, which allowed scientists to observe the stars and do math. A group of talented astronomers: Yahya bin Abu Mansur, Abdalmalik al-Merverrudi, Habash al-Mervezi as well as Ahmad al-Fergani, led by the head of the "House of Wisdom", a remarkable mathematician and astronomer - Al-Khorezmi, during long years of hard work made an incredible number of discoveries, were able to calculate the magnitude of the Earth meridian, to calculate the circumference of the Earth, to based up zijdi (Table of a starry sky) that contained the exact coordinates and a description of thousands of celestial bodies.

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Alisher Navoiy

Alisher Navoiy

An ingenious poet and the thinker, the musician and the artist, the teacher and the scientist, a great statesman and one of the most cultural persons of his time. Alisher Navoi was the conventional head of the cultural life of Herat, the patron of numerous representatives of sciences, arts and cultures. “Due to Alisher many people have received literary and art education and talent strengthening and there is no any other patron and the tutor of people as Alisher”. - wrote Babur

Alisher Navoi was born on February 9, 1441 in the city of Herat, the capital of Huroson State. From the childhood Alisher was interested in reading the works of classics of Persian-Tadjik literature: Saadi, Attar and others. According to Navoiy himself, such poets as Lutfi Sheikh Kemal Turbati have directed, assessed the verses written by him. Navoiy studied at the most educated people of that time, took part in their highly intellectual and deeply instructive conversations.

Having no family, no children, no successors, the poet spent a significant part of his huge wealth for charity. He has constructed a lot of educational institutions, hospitals, a caravan–sheds, channels, bridges and roads. In Herat Navoiy maintained the closest relations with the great Tadjik poet and thinker Abdurrahman Dzhami (1414 - 1492) who was his closest friend, the adherent, the teacher and the spiritual instructor. Friendship of Navoiy and Dzhami remain in a history for ever as a bright symbol of friendship between Uzbeks and Tadjiks.

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Avicenna

Abu Ali al - Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina (Avicenna)

Born: 980 in Kharmaithen (near Bukhara), Central Asia (now Uzbekistan)

Ibn Sina or Avicenna was the most influential of all Islamic philosopher - scientists. He wrote on medicine as well as geometry, astronomy, arithmetic and music. Ibn Sina's two most important works are The Book of Healing and The Canon of Medicine. The first is a scientific encyclopaedia covering logic, natural sciences, psychology, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic and music. The second is the most famous single book in the history of medicine.

Ibn Sina wrote about 450 works, of which around 240 have survived. Of the surviving works, 150 are on philosophy while 40 are devoted to medicine, the two fields in which he contributed most. He also wrote on psychology, geology, mathematics, astronomy, and logic. His most important work as far as mathematics is concerned, however, is his immense encyclopaedic work, the Kitab al - Shifa (The Book of Healing). One of the four parts of this work is devoted to mathematics and ibn Sina includes astronomy and music as branches of mathematics within the encyclopaedia. In fact he divided mathematics into four branches, geometry, astronomy, arithmetic, and music, and he then subdivided each of these topics. Geometry he subdivided into geodesy, statics, kinematics, hydrostatics, and optics; astronomy he subdivided into astronomical and geographical tables, and the calendar; arithmetic he subdivided into algebra, and Indian addition and subtraction; music he subdivided into musical instruments.

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Ismail-Al-Bukhari

Al – Bukhari, Muhammad Ismail Abu Abdullah al – Djufi

Al – Bukhari, Muhammad Ismail Abu Abdullah al – Djufi (810 - 870) – well-known Sunni muhaddist – traditionalist. He was born in the family of Iranian origin in Bukhara, has died in the Hartanka settlement (near Samarkand). Having started studying hadis at the age of 10 years, Al–Bukhari has shown uncommon abilities and unusual memory. During many years h) traveled, comprehending a science about hadises on different provinces of Khaliftae (Hijaz, Egypt, Iraq, Khurasan). According to sources, he listened хадисы more, than at thousand sheikhs. Al – Bukhari has aimed to collect all "authentic" (sahih) legends about statements and acts of Muhammed. Having shown peculiar to muhaddises of that time his critical attitude, Al–Bukhari has checked up 600 thousand hadises which were in use at that times, and 200 thousand more which he has written down from the teachers and informants. From this enormous amount of legends Al – Bukhari has selected by quality of "faultless" only about 7400 hadises. He has made the arch of them Al – Djami as– sahih which is usually named briefly as as– Sahih.

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The Great Amir Temur

The Great Amir Temur

Amir Temur Taragai Mukhamad Bakhodir ugli was born on April 9 (8), 1336 in the settlement of Khoja Ilgor which was located ten kilometers from the town of Shakhrisabz. In the Middle Ages Shakhrisabz’s name was Kesh. In Europe he was known as Tamerlane or Tumberlane. The name was derived from the Persian Timur - i lang, "Temur the Lame" by Europeans during the 16th century. His father Taragai Mukhammad Bakhodir came from the Barlas clan and he belonged to the elite of the clan. Amir Temur’s mother Tegina Begim Mokh (according to some sources - Nekina) was a Bukharian by birth and she was a daughter of the famous theologist Sadr - ash shariat Ubaydullakh Ibn Akhmad Makhbubi Bukhari.

Amir Temur was brought up in the atmosphere of fighting, competing and hunting, that’s why for him to lose honor was equal to death. The building up of Amir Temur’s character was the result of a number of conflicting events. The well known historian of that time Akhmad Ibn Arabshakh wrote in the Adjaib - al - Makdur book: "Temur’s qaze was steady and quiet. He didn’t know what the fear of death was. He preferred truth, irrespective how bitter it could be to lie and secrecy. Being unbelievably brave and strong, this person made people respect and obey him". In 1360 Temurbek, serving to the Mongolian khan Tugluq Temurkhan became the ruler of Kesh district. At that time Amir Temur had negotiations with the ruler of Balkh Amir Husain with the aim to overthrow the Mongolian Khan Tugluq Temurkhan and put an end to the Mongolian sway over Movarounnahr. However they were defeated and they had to escape to Sistan and collect forces there. In 1364 he and his uncle Khoja Barlas managed to liberate Movaraunnahr from Mongols and take power. In spring of 1366 forces of Amir Khusain and Amir Timur came to Samarkand. In 1370 Amir Timur occupied Samarkand and became the ruler of the whole Movaraunnahr. At that time Amir Husain died.

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Zahir - ud - din Mohammad Babur

Zahir - ud - din Mohammad Babur

Zahir - ud - din Mohammad Babur, Zahiriddin Muhammad Bobur (February 14, 1483 - December 26, 1530) (also spelled Baber or Babar), emperor (1526 - 30) and founder of the Mughal dynasty of India, a descendant of the Mongol conqueror Timur (Tamerlane). In 1526 he founded the Mughal Empire and the Mughal dynasty. Zahir - ud - din Mohammad was better known by the sobriquet "Babur" (derived from Persian "Babr" meaning "leopard".)

Babur was born on February 14, 1483, in the city of Andijan in present-day Uzbekistan. He was the eldest son of Omar Sheikh, ruler of the Fergana Valley, and a descendant of the famous Turkic warlord, Timur (Tamarlane). Although Babur hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Mongol origin, the tribe had embraced Turkish culture in a big way since converting to Islam and due to long residence in Turkish regions. Hence Babur, though nominally a Mongol (Mughal in Persian), drew much of his support from the Turks, and his army was eclectic in its ethnic makeup.

Babur is known to have been incredibly strong and physically fit. Allegedly, he would carry two men, one on each of his shoulders, and then climb slopes on the run, just for the exercise this afforded. Local legend holds that Babur made a point of swimming across every major river in India, again for exercise.

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