History of Uzbekistan
The culture of the nations found in the territory of Uzbekistan has a very rich history. In the 8th century the armies of an Arab caliph invaded Mawarannahr ("The Land Beyond River"), the territory between the Amudarya river, the Syrdarya river and the land of Khorasan lying to the south of the Amudarya river. This conquest brought a new religion that had risen in Saudi Arabia called Islam. At the same time, there was fire-worship and other religions such as Buddhism, Judaism and Christianity. Since then Islam has dominated far beyond this region and became an extremely important part of its culture.
Mawarannahr was one of the most advanced caliphate regions playing a significant role in social and cultural life. The Great Silk Road linked the West with the Orient and people from southern and northern countries passed through this land. The Mawarannahr towns of Bukhara, Samarkand and Kunya-Urgench were the crossroads of caravan routes from India, China, Egypt, Byzantium, Slavic countries and Arabia.
The House of Wisdom called "Bite ul-Khikma" founded by an order of the caliphate ruler Makhmud engaged in the great task to translate the books of Aristotle, Plato, Archimedes and other ancient Greek scientists and philosophers from classical Greek into Arabic. The Mawarannahr's brilliant young scientists, Musa Al-Khorezmi, Akhmad Al-Fergani, Al-Marvazi, Javkhari, Marvarudi and others, performed with distinction. Baghdad became one of the world's scientific and cultural centers.
The struggle for independence and freedom from oppression by the caliphate of the Central Asian region increased during this time and by the end of 9th century the first Samanid government with Bukhara as the capital was established. This government lasted until the end of the 10th century. During the 10th-12th century period different Karakhanids, Gaz-navids, Seldjukids and Khoresm-shakhs independent states appeared in Mawarannahr and Kho-rasan. In spite of continual wars to expand spheres of influence, this period appeared to be extremely important for the cultural and scientific activity of the region. The establishment of politically independent and autonomous states gave a good start, opening up great opportunities for regional economic and cultural growth. This time in history is known as the Oriental Renaissance and is noted for the unprecedented rise of ethical regulations.
It was the right time to bring in the ripe harvest of such bright philosophers as Abu Nasr Farabi, Imam Al-Bukhari, Narshaki, Makhmud Kashghari, Marginani, Nadjimmiddin Kubro, Abu Raikhan Beruni, Abu Ali Ibn Sino, az-Zamakhshari, and outstanding poets like Rudaki, Yusuf khas Khadjib, Akhmad Yassavi and Abu Bakr al-Khorezmi.
Especially during the reign of Ulugbek, Shakhrukh and Khusain Baikaro, the culture reached its peak for the period of history and the towns of Mawarannahr and Khorasan were acknowledged worldwide, not only in the Muslim Orient but also in Europe. This was at the end of the second half of Central Asian Renaissance. Those great philosophers such as Ulugbek, Kozizada Rumi, Ali Kushchi, Mirsharif Djurjani, Djami, Khoja Akhrar, Luhtfiy, Khondamihr, Bekzod, Babur and many others were recognized by the world. Alisher Navoi lived during the 15th century and created his immortal masterpieces. One of the Timurids, Ulugbek was responsible for the construction of a scientific center in Samarkand, known as The Ulugbek Academy in different literary sources.
From the 17th century onwards Mawarannahr experienced deep social and economic decay. However, during this time people like Makhmudi Azim, Karabaghi, Abdulgizkhan, Turdi, Mashrab, Nodira, Uvaisiy, Gulkhani, Makhmudkuli, Berdakh and others acquired personal fame for their treatises and literary work.
During the first half of the 19th century Muhammad Rakhimkhan paid a great deal of attention to history and literature in Khorezm, this was the time of Munis, Komil Khorezmi, Agakhi, Bayani and others.
In XVI-XVII century. On the territory of Uzbekistan and the right of states Sheibanids Ashtarkhanids. During the period of decline occurs Ashtarkhanids centralized state, which leads to fragmentation. As a result, in a XVIII. formed Emirate of Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand khanate.
As a result of conquest campaigns of the Russian Empire in Central Asia, our country in the second half of the XIX century. until 1991 was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
At the beginning the 80s of the twentieth century political and economic crisis made it possible to accelerate the movement for independence in Uzbekistan. As a result of a long historical August 31, 1991 under the leadership of Islam Karimov has achieved national independence.
Gaining independence Uzbekistan took place in a difficult political and socio-economic conditions. Since over 130 years, dominated the colonial regime made it impossible for the independent development of the Republic.
Declaration of independence has put before the people and the country's leadership task of fundamental reforms. As a result of internal and external conducted by the government led by Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan has been recognized by the international community as an independent state. Within a short time determined Uzbekistan's own model of development.
Developed and implemented by President Islam Karimov "The Uzbek model" of development paves the way for socio-economic development of the country. In a short time was provided grain and oil independence. Uzbekistan from agrarian and raw material of the country has become a rapidly growing, exporting modern technology country. The correctness of the chosen path of development of Uzbekistan confirmed and began in 2008 the global financial and economic crisis. "Uzbek model" has successfully weathered the crisis, deservedly received high positive ratings from international financial organizations and experts.
Historical experience shows that no country can develop in isolation from the world community. As a result of a balanced foreign policy, Uzbekistan has been recognized by more than 180 countries and from 130 countries established diplomatic relations. The Republic of Uzbekistan is a member of such authoritative international organizations as the UN, CIS, SCO and others.
To date, Uzbekistan has bilateral and mutually beneficial cooperation in the economic, political and cultural spheres with countries such as Austria, Great Britain, Germany, Greece, Indonesia, Iran, Spain, Italy, Canada, China, Malaysia, South Korea, Russia, the USA, Thailand Turkey, France, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Sweden.
In accordance with the Constitution of Uzbekistan ensured equality of citizens regardless of their ethnic, linguistic and religious identity. Currently in the country in accordance inhabited by more than one hundred nations and nationalities, for which all the necessary conditions. Operate in Uzbekistan Republican International Center, as well as more than a hundred national cultural centers.